I made a video version from a gamified quiz on New York City involving reading comprehension, image recognition and cultural knowledge. Could be used as end of term task or just for personal entertainment. Personally I would use it as a round-up activity after a class research project on New York City – “the city that never sleeps”
Student activity: Listening, Googleing, collaborating and writing. Level: Advanced (senior year in high school)Tasks: The podcast (this one from 2012) divided according to topic in game generator Didactorwith a final, gamified, quiz on vocabulary from all topics.In each news item the student tries to recreate what is being said word by word. Some help is given, but not too much:In the passage on King Sihanouk’s death, for instance, the following words need extra attention and re-appear in the final task: former, crucial, turbulent, unpredictable, autocratic, install, engulf, ill-fated, abdicate. Others to appear in the later items were: parachutist, leap, descent, head over heels, chord, sculpt, raise, constituent assembly, predecessor, defeat, offshoot, representative, serve as, transitional government, key player, uprising, mosque, clash, regain control, fierce, armoured vehicles, without major incidents, pollster, parliamentary election, rebuke, first-round vote, weary, recession, reduction, public sector, rebound, Lithuanians, assassination, impeachment etc., many of them extremely useful and much more frequent than most students would be prepared to admit. Working with them like this, in authentic, coherent contexts, raises the students’ linguistic awareness, which, in turn, makes it highly likely that the student will cognitively pay attention to them the next time they appear.
Student activity: The same as in Step 1: Listening, Googleing, collaborating and writing, expanded with these: finding corroborative images, practising intonation and pronunciation.Level: Advanced (senior year in high school)Task: To be a BBC TV-reporter who is assigned to make a TV-newscast on the basis of a radio news podcast. For news anchor he/she can either use an avatar or an actual photo of him-/herself.Material: A recent BBC podcast – preferrably as fresh as possible, because that would make it possible for the student to use recent newspaper for help (and generally boost newspaper reading habits).Dividing the deadlines like this, into two smaller ones – one for the text manuscript and one for the sound files – and a final one for the finished end-product, makes it more perspicuous for the student and reduces the risk of him procrastinating too much, leaving the whole work until the very last moment. Also, this enables me to review the student’s work at various points in the process and to render him/her assistance with the technology or the language if required. One student, participating in this project last year, chose to do it like this:
I was walking to school one autumn day four years ago, when all of a sudden I got this idea that would in fact later generate a whole range of other similar ideas for all ages and all levels. We had been working on a text about Jamie Oliver and subsequently on food vocabulary with my 7th-graders. The plan was to have a test on this later but for the lesson that particular day I had scheduled for us to work in the textbook with a new text on another subject. I was well prepared, as I usually is, but felt zero inspiration. Working with textbooks tends to be boring for the students – there are no surprises, nothing breaking the constant lull of the same activities over and over again. I’ve heard representative for publishing companies say that it is pedagogically important for the teaching material to be uniform, the same principle governing the whole series, but for the life of me I cannot imagine what that pedagogy could foster in terms of motivation or student engagement. Even I, the teacher, finds it incredibly boring, and as hard as I try to come up with new ideas around the themes in the texts, at times I just can’t take any more worksheets or do a text in class the way the material writers had planned it to be dealt with.
I thought, maybe I can postpone the new text until another day when I can muster up some enthusiasm for it, but what should I do right now then? I love introducing authentic video into my classes, but I wouldn’t have any time to prepare it for this particular lesson. Anyway, the students needed more activation now than watching a film clip. But what if they could do their own films? It couldn’t all be done in this one lesson, but they could prepare for it today and then film it maybe next week?
Still walking, I went through what steps this scenario would include in terms of subject matter, time frame, props, technology etc. and I directly thought of the text we had been working on, Jamie Oliver and his cooking shows. Yes, that’s what the students were going to do – their very own cooking shows. It could easily replace the written test I had planned and would be much more fun. Also, it would include oral skills which a written test hardly does. It would necessarily have to be zero-budget films, completely dependent on language and the students’ own imagination. The technology would involve their own cell phones – couldn’t use the school’s expensive video equipment, anyway, as I wanted everybody in class to make a film, not only a few protagonists. So I needed a lot of cameras not only one or two. We would use the school cafeteria and kind of play act all the ingredients in the show – couldn’t afford to buy all that food stuff anyway. And the students were free to come up with their own favourite dishes. What was important was that, like Jame Oliver, they would introduce all the ingredients while they were play-acting, and explain how these ingredients were prepared and put together – all in English of course. They would use the props available in the school cafeteria – actually nothing but trays, plates, glasses and cutlery. What remained was the problem of how to design the project so that everybody had the possibilities to come up with a film of their own. They wouldn’t be able to film and to play-act at the same time.
By now I had already reached the school building, and I was out of time. Then I got it, and this is how it turned out:
Language learning objective
1) Understanding what to do from reading a recipe in English
2) Orally explaining and physically showing how a dish is prepared
Previous learning activities
Studying a Jamie Oliver text in the textbook, learning the English names of vegetables & other food articles, watching a videoclip from Jamie Oliver’s Food Revolution in America with accompanying activities, learning cooking terminology
Four lessons in all
The class consisted of 21 students, ie. they were divisible by three: they would work in groups of three, and the groups would be put together so that there would be at least one student with a cell phone with video recording possibility in every group. Each group would produce three video clips, and there would be three roles in the group, that of the head chef, the sous chef and the camera man, roles that would circulate for every cooking show video. In that way, every single student will have served in all capacities.Recipes – pre-production activities
The first lesson would be dedicated to every student choosing their favourite recipe, something they had made in the home economics class or just something they knew how to cook. They would list all the necessary ingredients and start writing the instructions in English. There would be no computers, but they could use their cell phones for looking up words they didn’t know – I didn’t want them to get any shortcuts by looking up ready made recipes in English. The teacher would also help by building up a vocabulary list on the whiteboard. If they didn’t finish at school, this would be their homework for the next lesson.
During the second lesson the students would work in their home groups of three, collaborate on each other’s recipes and making corrections where necessary. They would also plan the actual video session – who would do what during each video.
The third lesson would be all about practising (dry runs without camera) and learning their lines by heart.
The fourth and final lesson would take place in the school cafeteria for the real action – the filming. There would be no editing, what got on camera would be the real thing. Re-takes were possible though.
Tools and props
Cell phones or digital cameras, basic cooking utensils
Watching with peer evaluation in class
Student assessment of the whole activity afterwards:
Fun and much better than oral presentation in front of the class, fun to watch what the other groups had done. The students also felt the assignment had been demanding, much more effort, engagement and hard work were required than a mere written test would have done.
– Cooperation absolutely central, everyone’s activities are intertwined making it a “whole” (group formation essential)
– Students support each other
– Differentiation natural – everyone can choose their own recipe according to level of difficulty
– Choice of location really awful – though lots of space the acoustics did not work, the individual performances were almost incomprehensible because of all the other action in the room –> students need more freedom to choose their own location which is perfectly possible as they are using their own equipment.
– Problems with what to do with students who were absent on the day of filming –> the teams incomplete (I solved it by leaving it to the teams to decide when and where to film on their own time, I merely gave them a deadline.)
– Oral proficiency: meets the teacher’s requirements. The stronger students needed little support from keywords or manuscripts, the weaker or lessconfident ones more. On the other hand, the teacher had not really laid down any rules on the use of manuscripts, so…
– Expected file format circus actually never happened. The students all brought their videos to me on memory sticks, which was an enormous relief. I had prepared for emergency conversion scenarios but I never had to put them in action.
Nowadays I actually consider this particular experiment a failure, just because the final products were so bad soundwise. This had nothing to do with student performance or the cell phones that we used. I had thought the school cafeteria would be a good location because there would be plenty of space for each team to work undisturbed by the others. I didn’t realise how bad it was until the actual filming part and then it was too late to do anything about it. Good thing was that everyone could work simultaneously and were given free hands on how much time to spend on the production, which was only possible because they were using their own at-hand equipment.
There were, however, a couple of teams that had to do the shooting at home, and that proved to be a so much better solution, as you can see here, where Christian is demonstrating how to fry an egg:
But even if this project was to a certain extent a failure, there still were so many positive aspects to it that I was definitely going to reuse the concept, but with a few modifications. I’ll return to these in future blog posts.
This is the second part of a series of posts on a PBL (project based learning) experiment utilising authentic video on the USA in a junior high school setting.My guess was that if the students were to choose their own videos, there would be parts of the USA more popular than others, like for instance California and New York. This wouldn’t be quite fair to those whose turn to choose came last, or those who didn’t participate the loudest in the shouting match that would probably ensue, because they would end up with the least popular ones and that might have a negative impact on their inner motivation. I had to come up with another solution, one that preferably involved the element of suspense, which I knew from experience is an automatic attention grabber.I started the class by writing the numbers 1-17 on the whiteboard, as there were 17 students and I had 17 videos. The students were to choose one number – there wouldn’t be much fighting or shouting about favourite numbers. Moreover, it would be fair to all students as they could recognize that nobody had any advantage here, the video they ended up with was a random act of chance not a deliberate move from anybody in particular. And, as I said, they had no idea what the numbers were all about anyway. One by one, names were added to the numbers. This would work also if you had fewer than 17 students in class or if you had more than 17 videos; any remaining numbers would result in the corresponding videos being left out of the project (NB! The names shown here are all entirely fictitious and merely serve the purpose of illustration).When all students have been assigned a number, it’s time to show what the numbers signify. I told them that they were all going to work with one particular part or aspect of the USA and that they had, in fact, already “chosen” what that part would be.This is actually a research project like any other, but here their background material was in the form of one video instead of books or web sites. They could, of course, use Google to look up names or other facts mentioned in the video, but the whole idea was that the contents of their end product would be based on what they had seen and heard in the video. Therefore, the ever-present risk or temptation in any research project to copy/paste would be eliminated. To use video in this way has many advantages at least when it comes to the language classroom. You get a multi-sensory (is there such a word?) activity based on several language skills: listening and writing (and the more optional one of reading if they use Google), and depending on the end product, the added skill of speaking, which leads me to what the students were actually supposed to do. The project would for each video lead to two end products: a PowerPoint presentation with nothing but images and a poster with both pictures and captions. The PowerPoint presentation would be needed for an oral presentation in class and the poster for an exhibition on the classroom walls. Now you might ask why there was to be no text in the PowerPoints. The answer is quite simple – I want the students to get as much practice speaking freely in front of others as they can, and speaking without reading aloud is a prerequisite for any good presentation. The images they choose for their Powerpoints should therefore be chosen for mnemonicdevices, to help them remember what to speak about, and not so much for looking nice, which, I have found, seems to be the only purpose pictures normally serve in student presentations. This adds real communicative speaking to the skills involved in this project. The students need to do some real attentive listening in order to get the facts straight, they need to do some real writing in the form of notes for themselves, and they need to practice their oral presentation before it’s time to step up in front of the class and deliver. Also, of course, they learn a lot about the United States, as well, and learning about target language countries is a predominant requirement in the national Finnish curriculum.In the next chapter I will talk about guiding the students as to content and scope of their project.
This is the first part of a series of posts on a PBL (project based learning) experiment utilising authentic video on the USA in a junior high school setting.
The Globe Trekker/Pilot Guides video collection is a treasure trove for any English teacher. It encompasses extensive material from every corner of the world, and especially English-speaking countries are lavished with attention. Australia, Canada, Scotland, Wales, Ireland, England – you name it. Even individual cities are endowed with an approx. 50-minute complete video of its own, like London, New York City, San Francisco, Los Angeles, New Orleans to name but a few.
Covering the United States satisfactorily in the language classroom is a daunting project, especially if you want to give your students more than a superficial understanding of its history, geography, language and people. Most textbooks for EFL students fall short in this respect, and it’s understandable – time available is limited and there is so much more that needs to be covered. But the situation can be remedied to a certain extent by taking your students on a virtual tour of this enormous multi-faceted, contradictory country, which, in spite of its young age, has so many fascinating stories to offer, and by giving them the visuals to go with these stories.
To date, Globe Trekker offers a range of videos on the USA, covering practically every individual state, and, so it seems, more is coming every new season.
Every video is about 50-55 minutes, which, of course, means that you have a few decisions to make – viewing all of them in the traditional classroom is a big no-no, at least if you want to keep the students’ attention. You can choose one to view in class and base all your allotted USA-time on that, but then again, which one? Which part of the country is so representative of the USA as a whole that you can disregard the rest? That’s a hard one to answer, and I won’t even make an attempt to do it. One of the other alternatives is to give every student one video plus an assignment to carry out in connection with it. That is the one I personally went for. Another option would be to have the students work in pairs with one video, which means you didn’t have to include the city guide videos but could concentrate on the states. It all depends on how many videos you have at hand, as well as how many students you have. And, of course, what the post-video phase will be.
In addition to making this initial decision, there are quite a lot of follow-up issues to consider:
1) Should the students be able to choose what video they are going to work with, or could this choice be made for them (without the teacher being dictatorial)?
2) What will the assignment be all about?
3) How could the sharing of all the gathered information best be implemented?
4) What is the time frame to work within?
5) What tools / skills will the students need in order to fulfill the requirements?
Technology as such and technological skills in particular are not crucial for teachers to use digital video to enhance cultural and target language awareness in ELT. The main point is actually multitasking in the sense of the students using multiple senses simultaneously in order to absorb and handle the information given. Listening, reading, writing, speaking and even getting emotionally involved are at the centre of language learning. And whereas videos, be it fictional films, documentaries or newsflashes, have long been recognized as a useful tool in the language classroom, their place in the curriculum have been marginal, because so much information is given in such a short time span that it has been impossible to utilize them effectively in ELT. Therefore they have mainly been used as complementary sources of information or as a means of tuning in to a particular subject. The reason for this has been that it’s been impossible to customize video viewing according to the differing individual needs of students trying to learn the language. The play, pause, fast forward, and the rewind buttons have been in the complete and sole control of the teacher, and the students have had little or no say as to the progress of their viewing. Technological advance in the digital area has now enabled us to offer a radical change of this situation.
The simple passing on of the control of these buttons to the students enables them to take charge of their own viewing process, and thereby giving the teachers a multitude of possibilities to vary their approach of video in the classroom. The video content can step forward from their hitherto marginal place onto the centre of the classroom stage. This does not mean it will replace the traditional textbooks and workbooks that have looked basically the same for decades, but it will radically change their function, their appearance as well as their use. The book will now be complementary – still essential but nevertheless complementary. It is more or less useless without the video content.
Let’s take an example. I as a teacher might want to introduce my students to the vocabulary and traditions of British food and drink. I could do it the traditional way and present them with a complete text, including dialogues and descriptive passages, and an accompanying wordlist, like this: .
Food and Drink in Britain
Deep-fried Mars bars
British food doesn’t enjoy the greatest reputation in the world, but at least it’s not boring, particularly here in Glasgow, Scotland.
─ How can I help you?
─ Well, what’s the most unique thing that you’ve fried?
─ We have deep-fried Mars bars,
─ Oooh! That’s a candy bar?
─ Yes. You usually serve it with tomato sauce.
─ Okay, this is it, ketchup and all! … Mmmmm
─ Very tasty?
─ Very strange….
─ Jellied eels… Not like lollies, eels!
─ Get it down you!
─ That’s not bad at all! Oh, I’m starting to talk like this now – know what I mean?
─ It works, doesn’t it?
─ This is not good … That’s awful! It’s not even cooked! It’s raw!
─ Ah, you’re braver than me…
─ You mean, you don’t eat it???
The full English breakfast
I just don’t understand why so many people disparage the English culinary tradition. I mean, they’ve got things that are good for you and properly named. You’ve got deep-fried fish and chips, you’ve got something called a toad-in-a-hole, but today I’m going to try a cornerstone of their nutritious diet – the full English breakfast.
The full English breakfast consists of a fried slice of bread, bubble and squeak which is potatoes and cabbage fried, fried black pudding, baked beans which are boiled, fried sausage, fried bacon, and, of course, a fried egg.
─ Oh, ta…
─ What is this stuff?
─ That is black pudding.
─ Yak! What’s it made of?
─ You don’t want to know. It’s dried blood.
The Cornish Pasty
I’ve come here to this small fisher village of Port Isaac for one thing – this! I’m going to track down the ultimate Cornish pasty! Oh, yeah!
The pasty was a snack for the tin miners, and the reason why it’s always got this thick edge round it is that if you work with tin you get poison from the metals in your fingers. So when you eat your food, you don’t want to get the poison from your fingers all over the bit you are going to eat. So you hold on to the rim, eat all the good bits, and then you chuck the crust away!
Oh, yes, wow! Traditional pasty filling is simple and very tasty. Flaked, not diced, potatoes, skirt beef, onions, salt and pepper.
─ So you never cook the filling first? You cook it inside the pastry.
─ Yes, and then the gravy that is produced, stays inside.
─ Wow! And that’s what gives it that …
─ That moist.
─ Aaaah…. Lovely! Oh, yeah! Definitely Cornish, I say! That’s lovely, ladies. That was my first real Cornish pasty on this trip… Gorgeous! Like you two, gorgeous! Gorgeous!
Tea and ballroom dancing
I’ve found refuge here in the delicate atmosphere of the Waldorf Meridien Hotel, where tea is served to 4 p.m. and guest dance in the old-fashioned way. It’s really very civilised.
Up north in Scotland at the island of Islay at the west coast of Scotland is the mecca of single malt Scotch whisky. Here you can take a tour of the Ardbeg distillery. Scotland’s national drink dates back to around the 15th century, in Gaelic they call it “usquebaugh” , which means “water of life”. I am talking about whisky. Scottish whisky’s distinctive taste comes from malted barley. The barley is soaked and dried in a kiln over a peat fire – mixed with water and then left to ferment. The weak alcoholic solution, or wart, is then distilled and matured in oak barrels for three to thirty years. This process hasn’t changed in hundreds of years.
─ This is 1975 Ardbeg. You will find it very smoky, very fruity and very sweet.
─ Slainte Mhath!
─ Slainte Mhath! What’s that?
─ That means cheers.
Now these text passages are admittedly not ones to be traditionally found in an English textbook. The dialogue is too broken up, too incomplete to be presented as a representative discourse in any language textbook. But this is how we use the language in real everyday life, which is proved by the fact that this is actually a transcript of a 5-minute video clip on somebody experiencing food and drink in various parts of Britain. We have the English breakfast quite accurately described, there is high tea at a fashionable London hotel, the Cornish pasty is to be found here as well as some culinary oddities like deep-fried Mars bars. There is even a visit to a Scottish whisky distillery included here. But does language alone give the student a full picture of what the text is actually talking about. Does a sausage look the same to a Finnish 14-year-old as it does to an Englishman? No, it certainly doesn’t. So a textbook could add pictures, one could very well argue. Okay, here is one of the full English breakfast:
Can I now be certain that my students know what I am trying to convey to them? Actually no. And without more visual material most of the text information would be lost to them anyway. And working traditionally with books and paper poses another problem: how to provide the students with a lot of images without resorting to pure teacher-centered activities with the teacher showing them all the necessary visual imagery in order for the students to get a better understanding. And, as a matter of fact, they would probably have been bored to death by the time I get to the pictures, and most likely not even bothered to look at neither the pictures nor the word list in order to understand all the words probably incomprehensible to them.
Okay, let’s try another approach. Let’s make it into a problem-solving task or a puzzle task, where my vocabulary learning objectives are more defined. The same text is presented to the students in the form of separate cards., but now all food-related terms and words are missing and I have also deleted the subheadings (in order to make it even more into a puzzle I could delete the A, B, C, D, E and F of the remaining subheadings as well as the numbering of the gaps):
This results in a text with 49 gaps with Swedish (mother tongue) clues within brackets. There are also six subheadings to be filled in by the students who are to deduce what subheading might be suitable for each passage. But how can they be supposed to know what words like “torveld” or “brödkant” are in English. And if they do, what use is there to have a text like this. This text was presented in order to make them learn new words, remember? Not to test them on what they are already supposed to know. Well, let’s add the missing English words in alphabetical order – that might make it more into a guessing game, and therefore perhaps even more motivating.
There are still some things missing – first of all, there are probably words impossible to guess. Secondly, there is the pronunciation which is always a problem with a language like English where the relationship between spelling and pronunciation is if anything enigmatic. So we need sound. And we still have the initial problem of visual illustration.
The video is the solution to all these problems. First of all we get a context with live persons in real life situations in authentic environments behind the sometimes incomplete lines, We also get an illustration of what all these food things look like, the typical British surroundings and the culture code, for example with the High Tea passage. And the pure guessing game is gone, instead we have a purely cognitive activity where brain cells are activated in various areas of the brain: areas related to vision, listening, combining listening to reading, associating the visuals with pre-conceptions we have of what might be British, as well as complementing existing images with new knowledge, new images. And we get the writing skills involved, as well.
 The video clip (from Ultimate UK) cannot be viewed here for copyright reasons. By the way, if you want to use authentic video in your classroom, but are not sure whether you’re allowed to or not, it might actually be worthwhile simply to contact the production company in question and ask whether they will give you permission or not. That’s what I did with Pilot Productions, listing all the different ways I might use it, and lo and behold, they gave their consent, probably too stunned by having somebody ask insted of just doing it. I therefore have their written consent to use their videos in my own classroom teaching as well as in the teacher training, a valuable thing indeed.
My second example of utilising authentic video in the EFL classroom is based on the same 50-minute travel video as my first. Of course, one can apply this to any video, but this time I will stick with Ireland. How I do it now will, however, differ from my last post because now I’ll concentrate on the language and vocabulary awareness in detail (but I wouldn’t use both methods on the same video in the same class, though). This approach is, however, associated with a lot of painstaking preparatory work for the teacher, because transcription of the video material needs to be done, at least for some of the clips. It takes about 1 hour to take down 5 minutes of video material, so one needs plenty of time to get a complete transcript. I rather enjoy transcribing videos and sound; oddly enough I experience the process as relaxing, especially if there is no deadline approaching. And having a transcript for a video makes the creating of tasks so much easier.
I’ve previously said that I use the gamification platform Didactorfor most of my online material, and this is true for when I want the students to work with authentic video as well. This set of tasks/games are connected by following Ian Wright on his aforementioned tour of Ireland. They are, however, separated by task type and Ian’s activities. Variation is important for student motivation, and even though I might use the same game types over and over again, I try to vary how they are used.
The “game board” that the students start out with looks like this:
The idea is that they start with task number 1A and then follow Ian’s route one step at a time until they reach the end of the journey. By then they should have a pretty clear idea of what life and travelling in Ireland is all about as well as key concepts and vocabulary needed in order to get by.
In order to illustrate the student’s journey, I’ve recorded the learning process in nine shortish video clips, because I thought those would better describe what the student is supposed to do than if I tried to do it in words. NB! In some of the tasks I’ve made use of my students’ mother tongue, Swedish, but that could be changed into any language really. In fact, Didactor can be used for any language learning whatsoever, not only English, and also for other subjects.
1. Antrim – Giants’ Causeway
There are three different steps here, ie. two different gap texts – one based on vocabulary, the other on verbs – and a vocabulary game on the videoclip vocabulary with definitions in English for clues.
2. The Troubles
Here I’ve simply used a multiple choice task type for the first step, which therefore is simply traditional listening comprehension, whereas the second part comprises a bilingual wordlist to the video clip, with the English part scrambled. A lot of background info on the violent and bloody history of conflict between the Loyalists and the Republicans is provided here, something every student, language learner or not, should have in his bag of general knowledge when he steps into adulthood. The activity is rounded off with a take on pub life and the traditional Irish pint of Guinness.
3. The craic and nightlife in Belfast
This is quite simply a dictation kind of task involving intense listening and writing (+ spelling and grammar). I’m a firm believer in the theory that one can’t write what one can’t understand when listening, and technology has revived the ancient language learning methodology of dictation, something that quite simply does not work in the non-tech classroom any more. But given the control over the audio, many a student actually enjoys dictation activities.
This is also the last video clip here involving two tasks, the latter on the same principle as the one described in Environmental collocations – but this time having the student provide the English translations of single words from the dictation.
4A Road bowling
This is a memory game played a little differently. First of all, hardly any of my “memory” games are played with hidden cards – I don’t think remembering where something was is as important as getting the student’s brain cells working by trying to connect one item with another. But here I’m not aiming for words, instead I have made the game consist of bits and pieces of lines from the video. The student has to actively listen for what is being said in order to connect two pieces of sentences to each other.
4B Janus the fertility god
The task type SORTER is based on the idea of sorting words or concepts into various categories. Well, it can be used for sorting scrambled lines of text, too. I would argue that this task is impossible to solve or to score satisfactorily on without listening, which again serves the idea of active listening in the classroom, ie. listening serves a functional purpose, and not just perfunctory activity.
5A Dublin and checking into a hostel
At this stage, the flipped classroom might well come into play because this activity is very much based on a communicative situation; Ian is checking into his hostel, and the skills to successfully obtain accommodation in a foreign country is something all of today’s language learners most certainly will need at some time or another in his life. Supposing hotel bookings and checking in will be the theme for the next communicative lesson, this task might very well fill the function of “homework” in anticipation for that lesson. It’s based on a combination of scrambled lines of dialogue, clues in the form of the same lines in the mother tongue, and a hangman-type activity without the “hanging”.
6 Attending a hurling game in Dublin
No sport except Gaelic football can be more Irish than hurling and therefore a must when dealing with Ireland in the English language classroom. This is a very short and rather simple game-type activity with a time factor, but it still gives the student an idea of what distinguishes hurling from other sports.
7 Cobh – the seaside town
The Titanic, the Lusitania, World War I, and Irish emigration are all part of the history of the small town of Cobh. A true/false/doesn’t say activity here.
8 Blarney Castle and the gift of the gab
This is the very last of my demonstrations here, one on the myth of becoming a good speaker by performing the rather awkward ritual of kissing the Blarney stone. The activity comprises the unscrambling of whole chunks of sentences to be heard in the video clip. Scaffolding in the form of mother tongue versions is provided.
The whole Ireland-theme presented this way could be finished off with the same post-video/post-computer activities as described in my previous post here, but now wordchecks or quizzes on vocabulary and collocations could be added.
What you see here is an approximately 3-minute clip from a 50-minute travel video on Ireland. It is authentic, in the sense that it’s intended for English-speaking people interested in travelling and other countries, not for language learners per se. “Ireland” is one of many videos in the Globetrekker series produced by UK-based Pilot Productions. The series is based on the concept of having a travel guide touring a specific country, experiencing cultural highlights, meeting local people and basically learning about the country together with the viewer. The “guide” is not the expert here, the experts are the locals, and the viewer travels the country in the “guise” of the guide, which makes the videos quite entertaining and exciting – and ideal for the language classroom.
There is hardly any language classroom without the use of videos at one time or another. Youtube videos abound and you are sure to find something suitable regardless of subject matter at hand. Authentic video clips are the obvious choice for introducing real-life people, accents and situations, as well as giving the students a cultural frame of reference for the target language.
What activities are used in connection with video-clips in class? Most common, I would say, are the following:
– for introducing a new subject: Watch and guess what we are going to talk about today.
– to go together with a text: Watch and find similarities to what was said in the text
– to go together with a text: Watch and look out for certain objects (= make a list)
– for discussion: Watch and tell me (the teacher) what this has to do with the text we’ve read
– to go together with a grammatical point: Watch and write down all the instances this particular structure is used
– to illustrate situations: Watch and then tell me what this situation is all about. How would you react / What would you have said in the same situation?
– for listening comprehension: Watch and answer the following questions
Quite a lot it would seem. However, I would argue that we could do much more if we applied the blended learning concept.
Hardly ever do the video clips replace texts, and there is a good reason for that: the time variable that basically defines the video and audio media. Watching a video together in a class makes it rather impossible to pause, to rewind, to replay according to individual demands. By making watching video possible for all students at the same time, we make it impossible to adjust for individual needs and individual study. But if we take out the “all students at the same time”-aspect, and gave over the play and pause buttons to the students, a whole vista of new possibilities emerge, increasing the overall as well as individual student activity.
So, what could these alternative activities be? I will try to give at least a few scenarios in this blog.
Skills: Listening, reading, speaking/writing
Objectives: the student should be able to talk/write about life and travelling in Ireland based on the facts presented in the Globetrekker video
Pre-video phase – tuning in to the subject
The teacher writes down words having to do with Ireland on the whiteboard, eg. LEPRECHAUN, GUINNESS, GAELIC, JAMES JOYCE, CONNEMARA, THE TROUBLES etc. The students guess what country is represented and when they have arrived at the correct destination, Ireland, they can try to guess what phenomena these individual words are associated with. The answers will be found in the subsequent video.
Video phase – instructions what to do + work sheets –> student activity
The students are asked to do three things while watching the 50-minute video:
1) Before watching he needs to read through all the keywords so that he knows what to listen out for.
2) During the watching he is to draw the travel route in the blank map, and
3) watch and listen for the given keywords on the worksheet, make additional notes in order for the keywords to make sense to him.
As he has access to the video online (in a closed community/LMS) he can pause the video whenever he likes, re-play what he didn’t catch the first time around, ie. he will now enjoy total empowerment and control over his own learning process. Neither is he confined to the classroom space – he can work from home as well.
The keywords have been sorted alphabetically, ie. they do not appear in the correct order. Thus the student has to read through the keywords several times in search for something to match what he has seen and heard. He does not have to find all of them – there is no 100% score to aim for here. The teacher decides how much time will be allocated for this, and when he thinks it appropriate he stops the activity and calls for the students’ attention back to the class.
Post-video phase 1– Discussion in small groups
The students compare their findings in small groups, assisting each other in filling in missing information on the worksheet.
Post-video phase 2 – Debriefing
There are countless possibilities here , but I’ll just give a few, based on a simple PowerPoint slide show with ten keywords from the worksheet.
1) The students work in pairs, but no worksheets allowed any more. You will show a keyword and the students take turns in telling his partner all there is to know about that keyword. If the partner has nothing to add, the first student will score a point. For the next keyword the partner in turn does the same. If none of them has anything to say both will lose a point.
2) Divide the class into 4-5 groups and give each group 10 blank papers. Explain the rules: You will show 10 keywords, one at a time, and each group should write down as many facts associated with that keywords as they can. The group with the most correct facts will score a point. The same with the next keyword until time is out or all ten keywords have been dealt with. The winning team will get a prize.
3) Let the students write down their names on small pieces of paper. Collect the names, put them together in a hat, let a student draw a name. That student will have to explain all he knows about the given keyword.
Post-video phase 3 – Final task for evaluation and assessment
Give the students a choice between 4-5 broader topics in connection with the video and have them write a composition of 200-250 words. For example:
1. Music in Ireland
2. Irish history
3. Farming in Ireland
4. Sports in Ireland
5. Irish climate and geography
or a communicative topic like this one:
you have a friend you have met on the Internet and there only.
Now he/she tells you he/she is about to go to Ireland in a couple of weeks and as you have told him/her that you have done and read a lot about Ireland in school he/she asks for advice on where to go and what to do and see there exactly. His/her interests are very wide which means he/she is open to all kinds of activities. Write your reply to him/her now and try to uphold his/her image of you as the real expert on Ireland.
Length: about 200 words
A short test on facts related in the video. For example:
A photo album with nine stills from the video. The students’ task is to write short texts about six of them. For example: